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Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. It is the product of experience and the goal of education. Learning ranges from simple forms of learning such as habituation and classical conditioning seen in many animal species, to more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.
For small children, learning is as natural as breathing. In fact, there is evidence for behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.
Learning has also been mathematically described as a differential equation of knowledge with respect to time, or the change in knowledge in time due to a number of interacting factors (constants and variables) such as initial knowledge, motivation, intelligence, knowledge anchorage or resistance, etc. Thus, learning does not occur if there is no change in the amount of knowledge even for a long time, and learning is negative if the amount of knowledge is decreasing in time. Inspection of the solution to the differential equation also shows the sigmoid and logarithmic decay learning curves, as well as the knowledge carrying capacity for a given learner.
“Thought,” in a general sense, is commonly conceived as something arising from the stimulation of neurons in the brain. Current understanding of neurons and the central nervous system implies that the process of learning corresponds to changes in the relationship between certain neurons in the brain. Research is ongoing in this area.
It is generally recognized that memory is more easily retained when multiple parts of the brain are stimulated, such as through combinations of hearing, seeing, smelling, motor skills, touch sense, and logical thinking.
Repeating thoughts and actions is an essential part of learning. Thinking about a specific memory will make it easy to recall. This is the reason why reviews are such an integral part of education. On first performing a task, it is difficult as there is no path from axon to dendrite. After several repetitions a pathway begins to form and the task becomes easier. When the task becomes so easy that you can perform it at any time, the pathway is fully formed. The speed at which a pathway is formed depends on the individual, but is usually localised resulting in talents.
The Polish language is spoken by about 43 million people, most of whom (36.5 million) live in Poland, where it is the official language. Another 2.5 million live in the United States, 1 million in Ukraine, and 100,000 or fewer in each of the following countries: Canada, the Czech Republic, Germany, Israel, and Slovakia. Lesser numbers are found in Australia and Romania.
Polish is a Slavic (or Slavonic) language and belongs to the West Slavic subgroup, which also includes Czech, Slovak, Cassubian (or Kashubian; spoken in the Baltic coast region in northern Poland), Sorbian (Saxony and Brandenburg, Germany), and Polabian, now extinct.
|Letter||Pronounced||English Example||Polish Example||Meaning|
|awng or on||bond||pra~d||current, stream|
|tseh||its or cats||cukier||sugar|
|eh||let or met||teraz
|ehr||rolled as in Spanish rr
|ehs||soft or sit||miasto
|ehs||she or sure||s~wiat
|he will take|
|Polak (m)/ Polka (f)||Pole (Polish person)|
|Miłego dnia||Have a nice day|
|No exact equivalent
Dzień dobry is used
|Good Morning/Afternoon (good day)|
|Dobry wieczór||Good Evening|
|Do widzenia||Good bye (See you later)|
|Przepraszam||I’m sorry/Excuse me|
|Do zobaczenia/Na razie(informal)||See you later|
|Do jutra||See you tomorrow|
|Dobra robota!||Good job!|
|Bardzo dobra robota!||Very good job!|
|Nieźle!||Nice (not too bad)|
|Nie ma mowy!||No way! (literally “there is no talk of it”)|
|Jak leci?||What’s up? (literally “how is it moving?”)|
|Bardzo mi miło||Nice to meet you|
|Ile to kosztuje?||How much does this cost?|
|Jedno piwo poproszę||One beer please|
* Note that adjectives based on proper nouns (polski, amerykański, etc) are not capitalized, unlike in English.